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TOYOTA MOTOR SALES, USA, INC.

Glossary

Terms and definitions. If you need a little help with some of the more technical and financial words, you've come to the right place. This automotive glossary explains and defines traditional mechanical terms and also helps you stay abreast of Toyota's many innovations.

Accessories
Like options, these are features that don't come standard with a certain model, but are installed usually by the dealer. You can sometimes ask the dealer to add an accessory to a vehicle on hand.

Active TRAC
Using sensors at all four wheels to monitor a loss of traction, Active TRAC employs brake and throttle control to reduce wheelspin and transfer torque to the wheel with the most traction. The system can be found on the Land Cruiser and 4-wheel-drive versions of 4Runner and the all-new Sequoia.

Adjusted Capitalized Cost
The difference between the gross capitalized cost reduction. This is the amount used to calculate the lease payment.

Aerodynamic Drag
Basically wind resistance, aerodynamic drag is expressed by a measurement called coefficient of drag (Cd). A lower number means an automobile cuts through wind more efficiently, resulting in better fuel economy and lower wind noise.

All-Wheel Drive
This system sends power to all four wheels at all times. You do not need to select 2- or 4-wheel drive, as in part-time 4-wheel-drive systems.

Amount Financed
The agreed-upon sale price of a vehicle plus any charges for taxes, title, license fees, service contracts and insurance - less any down payment and/or net trade-in allowance. This is the amount which is subject to finance charges.

Anti-lock Brake System (ABS)
ABS is a sophisticated computer-controlled system that modulates brake pressure during hard braking to help avoid wheel lock-up and maintain steering control. When the wheels are beginning to lock, the computer causes the brakes to pulse more rapidly than humanly possible. This allows the wheels to rotate rather than skid, for better stopping and steering control.

Anti-Lockout Power Door Locks
Prevents the doors from being locked if the keys are in the ignition.

Assist Grips
Handles mounted on the inside of a vehicle. They provide a convenient place to grab and obtain leverage for entering and exiting the vehicle.

Auto-On/Auto-Off Headlamps
This system detects the amount of daylight and automatically turns the headlamps on or off as required. It automatically turns lights off when the key is removed and the driver's door is opened. These automatic systems provide an added level of convenience, safety and security.

Automatic Locking Front Hubs
In a part-time 4-wheel-drive vehicle, the front hubs must disconnect to "freewheel" when in 2-wheel drive. When the vehicle is shifted into 4-wheel drive, the axles automatically "lock up" in the differential, providing equal torque at each front wheel. They are activated simply by shifting into 4WD. Manual hubs (the old style) were mechanical systems that forced the driver to get out of the vehicle and turn a switch on each wheel before they were capable of accepting engine power.

Automatic Transmission Shift Lock
This safety device requires that the ignition is on and the brake pedal is depressed before the transmission lever can be moved out of "Park." The shift lock prevents a car from being put into "Drive" or "Reverse" and accelerating inadvertently.

Axle Ratio
The number of times the driveshaft rotates to turn the axle shaft one rotation. For example, if the driveshaft gear had 10 teeth and the axle shaft gear had 30 teeth, the driveshaft gear would have to turn three times to turn the axle shaft gear once. This translates to a ratio of three-to-one (3:1).

Balance Shafts
Balance shafts are small, weighted shafts - similar to a camshaft - inside the engine block. Two balance shafts rotate in opposite directions from each other at twice the crankshaft speed to help "cancel out" engine vibration. Balance shafts are most common to 4-cylinder engines to help reduce noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) inherent in this engine design.

Ball Joint
A flexible joint consisting of a ball in a socket. It is used primarily in the front suspension because of its wide range of motion.

Bore x Stroke
Bore is the measurement of the diameter of each cylinder, and stroke is the distance the piston travels one-way within the cylinder. By first determining the area of the cylinder and then multiplying that by the stroke, you can obtain the displacement for each cylinder. Multiply that by the number of cylinders for the total engine displacement (engine size).

Brake Assist
In emergencies, some drivers, especially inexperienced ones, often panic and do not apply sufficient pressure on the brake pedal. Brake Assist measures the speed and force with which the brake pedal is pushed to determine whether the driver is attempting an emergency stop. If the system determines that is the case, it applies additional brake pressure to allow the driver to take full advantage of the ABS brake system. When the driver intentionally eases up on the brake pedal, the system reduces the amount of assistance it provides. This feature comes with VSC.

Brake Caliper
The disc brake component that straddles the rotor and houses the piston, cylinder and brake pads. The piston movement pushes the pad against the rotor to slow or stop the vehicle.

Brake Fade
This refers to a reduction of braking effectiveness caused by brake overheating. It can occur during excessively long and hard brake applications, and can be reduced with ventilated disc brakes.

Brake Proportioning Valve
See Load-Sensing Proportioning and Bypass Valve (LS&PBV).

Capitalized Cost Reduction
The amount of any net trade-in allowance, rebate, noncash credit or cash which you pay that reduces the gross capitalized cost.

Catalytic Converter
This muffler-like canister mounted in the exhaust system uses platinum or palladium as a catalyst to chemically convert some harmful emissions in a vehicle's exhaust into water vapor and carbon dioxide.

CFC-Free Air Conditioning
A vehicle air conditioning system that uses R-134a refrigerant instead of CFC-based chemicals (usually known as Freon).

Closed-End Lease
A type of lease in which the lessee is not responsible for the value of the vehicle at the end of the lease. The lessee is liable for excess mileage and excessive wear and use. This is also called a guaranteed trade-in, net lease or walk-away lease. This is the only type of lease that Toyota Financial Services (TFS) uses.

Clutch Start-Cancel Switch
This device in manual transmission-equipped vehicles prevents the vehicle's starter motor from engaging unless the clutch is depressed. This prevents the vehicle from starting while in gear.

Coil Spring
A thick steel wire that has been coiled and heat-treated to form a very strong spring. Commonly used in car and light truck suspension systems, coil springs are space-efficient and can vary in stiffness, even within the same spring (i.e., stiff at the top and not stiff at the bottom). The coil springs on a given vehicle largely define how that car or truck's ride and handling will feel.

Compression Ratio
A measurement of how tightly the air-fuel mixture is compressed or squeezed within the cylinder by the piston. This can be determined by taking the total volume of the cylinder when the piston is at its lowest point (Bottom Dead Center, or BDC) and dividing it by the volume when the piston is at its highest point (Top Dead Center, or TDC). In general, higher compression ratios yield greater power.

Control Arms
A part of the suspension system designed to control wheel movement precisely. It is also known as a wishbone or an A-arm.

Crumple Zones
These exist at the front and rear of the vehicle to help absorb the impact of a collision. These pre-stressed areas in the fender, hood, frame and related body components are designed to deform in a predetermined manner during collision. Their purpose is to help lessen the force the impact transfers to the passenger compartment. In essence, the crumple zone of a vehicle is sacrificed to help protect the occupants.

Curb Weight
The weight of an empty vehicle, without cargo and driver and passengers, but including maximum amounts of fuel, oil, coolant and standard equipment, including the spare tire and tools.

Daytime Running Lights (DRL)
The daytime running light system activates the low beam headlights at a reduced intensity during daylight to keep the car highly visible to other vehicles. On some models, a dash-mounted sensor automatically switches between DRLs and the normal intensity low beams according to the lighting conditions (nighttime, tunnel, etc.). (Note: The DRL system activates either low beams or high beams - it varies by model.)

Differential
A gear assembly that allows one driven wheel to turn at a different speed from the wheel on the other end of the axle. This is necessary since an outside wheel has farther to travel than an inside wheel when turning a corner.

Distributorless Ignition
Rather than use a mechanical distributor to time spark plug firing, the distributorless Toyota Direct Ignition (TDI) system places an ignition coil on top of each spark plug (in some cases, two spark plugs share a coil). This eliminates many wear items and reduces the number of parts in the system as well as the number of high-voltage wires under the hood.

Disc Brake
A disc or rotor is attached to the wheel. A non-moving caliper straddles this disc. When you push the brake pedal, pads within the caliper squeeze both sides of the disc to slow and stop the wheel. (See Ventilated Disc Brakes.)

Double Overhead Cam (DOHC)
An engine configuration with two overhead camshafts per row of cylinders. One camshaft operates the intake valves and the other operates the exhaust valves. This is the usual arrangement in engines with multi-valve cylinder heads. Compared to single overhead cam designs, the direct drive used in all Toyota DOHC engines requires fewer moving parts. It eliminates the rocker arm needed to activate the valves, thus improving efficiency and reducing vibration and noise. Compared to push-rod overhead valve (OHV) engines, which use an arrangement by which the camshaft is located in the engine block and opens the valves via long push rods and rocker arms, it eliminates the need for both of these components. With fewer moving parts, there is less inertia. So, an overhead cam engine can run at a higher speed and produce more power than a comparably sized pushrod engine.

Double Wishbone Suspension
This is an independent suspension system in which each wheel is located on a "knuckle" that is connected by ball joints to upper and lower A-arms that are unequal in length. This system minimizes changes in track and camber during cornering and when driving over bumps.

Down Payment
The amount of cash or net trade-in allowance applied to reduce the cash sales price of a vehicle. Most retail transactions require a down payment of 10 to 15 percent of the amount to be financed. However, the required down payment can be less, depending on your credit standing, ability to repay and other criteria. A down payment helps lower your monthly payment, as well as establish equity in your vehicle.

Drum Brake
A hollow drum is attached to the wheel and rotates with it. When you push the brake pedal, two "shoes" press against the inside surface of the drum to slow and stop the wheel.

Dual Air Bag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)¹
In vehicles equipped with an air bag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS), the air bag inflates with nitrogen gas within a fraction of a second to help cushion the driver's head and upper torso to help prevent serious injury in a severe frontal impact. This system supplements, but does not replace, the 3-point seatbelt system, which provides primary protection. The air bag is not intended to operate during an impact other than a severe frontal impact, in which case the 3-point system is the only personal protection. In a severe frontal impact, sensors located in the center console (or floor tunnel) sense the impact and activate the air bag system. The air bag, which emerges from the steering wheel pad, then deflates within a few tenths of a second.
The front passenger air bag is usually incorporated into the top part of the passenger-side instrument panel. This air bag emerges from an air bag module that can usually be replaced without replacing the entire instrument panel. This bag is larger than the driver-side air bag to ensure that it cushions the passenger's head and torso in case of a severe frontal impact. Do not place rearward-facing child seats in the front passenger seat. Serious injury or death can occur from the deploying air bag. Place children securely in the rear seat.

¹Driver and Front Passenger Air Bags
The Toyota driver and front passenger air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts and sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules. Do not put objects in front of an air bag. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

¹Driver, Front Passenger and Front Seat-Mounted Side-Impact Air Bags
The Toyota driver, front passenger and front seat-mounted side-impact air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. The side-impact air bags are designed to inflate in severe side-impact collisions. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts, sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules and do not lean against the door. Do not put objects in front of an air bag or around the seatback. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

¹Driver and Front Passenger Air Bags (with passenger air bag cutoff switch)
The Toyota driver and front passenger air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts and sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules. Do not put objects in front of an air bag. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat without switching off the passenger-side air bag. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

¹Driver and Front Passenger Air Bags, Front Seat-Mounted Side-Impact Air Bags and Side Curtain Air Bags
The Toyota driver, front passenger, front seat-mounted side-impact and side curtain air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. The side-impact and curtain air bags are designed to inflate in severe side-impact collisions. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts, sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules and do not lean against the door. Do not put objects in front of an air bag or around the seatback. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

Early Termination
When a lease is ended by the lessee returning the lease vehicle to the lessor before its scheduled maturity date.

Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD)
This system optimizes the braking effort distributed between front and rear axles. Vehicle stability during braking is improved in conditions that fall short of triggering the ABS. EBD helps minimize stopping distances regardless of load conditions.

Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
A system that injects fuel into the cylinders, and is timed and metered by an electronic control unit.

ELR/ALR 3-Point Seatbelts
The ELR (Emergency Locking Retractor) allows the driver seatbelt to extend and retract with occupant movement, yet locks the belt during a sudden stop or upon impact. The ALR (Automatic Locking Retractor) makes it possible to secure a child seat without using a seatbelt locking clip. To activate the ALR retractor, pull the shoulder belt all the way out, then allow it to retract to the desired length. Press down firmly on the child seat as the belt retracts to buckle the child seat securely in place. Unbuckling the belt and allowing it to retract fully deactivates the ALR retractor. Do not place rearward-facing child seats in the front passenger seat. Serious injury or death can result from the deploying air bag. Place children securely in the rear seat. See Owner's Manual for child seat usage.

Engine Immobilizer
An ID code stored in a transponder embedded in the ignition key is compared to the ignition transponder. If the codes match, the immobilizer is deactivated and allows the engine to start. If the codes do not match, the engine will not start.

Engine Mount
Engines (and transmissions) are mounted to a vehicle's frame or sub-frame on top of rubber or fluid-filled rubber devices.

ETR (Electronically Tuned Radio)
In addition to tuning with more precision, an ETR permits adding other electronic features, such as station seek and scan.

Excessive Wear and Use
The Toyota Touch Lease Plan contains specific standards for excessive wear and use based upon TFS's standards. Included are such things as missing parts, scratches, dents, mismatched or bald tires, cracked glass, ripped/burned/torn interior and inoperable mechanical parts. At the end of the initial contract term, if the lessee does not purchase the vehicle, the lessee must either repair the excessive wear and usage - or pay the lessor the estimated cost of repairs.

Extra Value Package
A package contains several options together for one price. The price of the package is less than the price of purchasing all the options separately. Savings based on Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price of individual options. Actual dealer price and customer savings may vary.

Package Examples:

  • The Third Seat Package includes a removable split/folding rear bench seat with headrests, outboard 3-point seatbelts and 2-point center lap belt, power rear quarter windows, rear-seat cup holders, assist grips and child-protector rear hatch lock.
  • The Leather Trim Package adds leather-faced seats and headrests.
  • Premium 3-in-1 AM/FM ETR/Cassette/CD with programmable equalization, seven speakers, diversity reception and anti-theft.

5-Speed Manual Overdrive Transmission
Fifth gear reduces engine rpm at highway cruising speed and provides greater fuel economy, quieter operation, and less wear and tear on the engine.

4-Speed Electronically Controlled Automatic Transmission with intelligence (4ECT-i)
The 4ECT-i transmission is one of Toyota's most advanced automatic transmissions. The transmission computer networks with the engine computer to control hydraulic shift pressure more precisely than even the 4ECT. It also automatically adjusts for transmission wear over time.

4-speed Electronically Controlled Overdrive Transmission with Sportshift Feature
The 2001 Celica GT-S features a 4-speed electronically controlled transmission with Sportshift, a feature that allows the driver to shift the gears by pressing shift buttons on the steering wheel. The driver can choose to keep the vehicle in automatic mode for stop-and-go traffic, or the driver can shift the gears clutchlessly for more enthusiastic driving situations. The gear position selected by pressing the shift button is fixed, and enables a manual shift-like feel. The shift buttons for downshift are located on the top side of the steering wheel and the shift buttons for upshift are located on the back side of the steering wheel. This enables the driver to shift the gears by pressing buttons located on the steering wheel, thus minimizing the amount of time required to shift gears. When engaged, the M mode indicator will illuminate in the combination instrument meter on the dash. As the driver selects a gear, the correct gear position indicator will appear on the combination meter.

4WDemand
Allows the driver to go from 2-wheel drive to 4-wheel drive and back while the vehicle is in motion, automatically locking the front hubs at speeds up to 50 mph. The driver needs only to move a lever to engage 4-wheel drive; it is not necessary to stop the vehicle. This system is available on certain 4-wheel-drive Toyota Trucks and 4Runner models.

4-Wheel Drive (4WD)
A drive system where the engine drives all four wheels, 4WD helps improve traction under many circumstances. 4WD can be part-time (sometimes 2-wheel drive) or full-time (always 4-wheel drive).

Front-Wheel Drive (FWD)
Allowing more passenger and cargo room by placing the engine transversely (or sideways), this system carries the weight of the engine and transmission over the drive wheels, helping to improve traction in certain situations.

Full-Time 4-Wheel Drive
This full-time setup means that all four wheels are driving the vehicle at all times. Since the vehicle is always operating in 4-high, no additional driver input is required for normal driving situations.

Gas-Filled Shock Absorbers
Containing compressed nitrogen gas, these shocks generally respond more quickly and do not "fatigue" under hard use.

Gross Axle Weight Rating
The maximum amount of weight that can be supported by each axle, as designated by the manufacturer.

Gross Capitalized Cost
The agreed-upon value of the lease vehicle (including dealer mark-up). Plus any items you pay for over the lease term such as taxes, service contracts, insurance and any prior credit or lease balance.

Gross Combined Weight (GCW)
The total weight of a vehicle, including all its contents, plus the weight of a trailer and its entire contents. The GCW should not be allowed to exceed the Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR).

Gross Combined Weight Rating (GCWR)
GCWR is the maximum recommended weight of a vehicle with a towed trailer. A vehicle usually can't accept the same load of people and cargo when towing a trailer as it can without the trailer. GCWR is not the sum of GVWR plus maximum trailer payload.

Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
The sum of curb weight and payload. Curb weight is the weight of a vehicle with all fluids, less driver, ready to be operated. Payload is the load added to a vehicle, including the driver, passengers and any other equipment or cargo.

Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
The maximum allowable loaded vehicle weight. It includes the vehicle and its equipment, fluids, occupants and cargo.

Ground Clearance
The distance between the lowest point on the vehicle and level ground.

Halogen Headlamps
Headlamps with special bulbs that provide brighter illumination than conventional bulbs yet last longer and use less energy. They get their name from the halogen gas inside the bulb.

High Solar Energy-Absorbing Glass (HSEA)
Helps keep the vehicle's interior cooler and helps reduce interior window fogging.

HomeLink®² Universal Transceiver
The HomeLink System learns the codes for up to three remote-controlled devices through a simple training process. HomeLink can then activate those devices at the push of a button -- all from one unit permanently mounted in the vehicle's sun visor, overhead console or mirror. There's no transmitter clutter in the vehicle, no batteries to change or individual transmitters to misplace. HomeLink is rolling-code compatible, is powered by the vehicle's charging system, can be reprogrammed at any time and can activate home lighting with the available HomeLink Lighting Package.

²HomeLink® is a registered trademark of Johnson Controls.

Horsepower
The measurement of the ability to do work over time. One horsepower is the amount of energy needed to raise 33,000 pounds a distance of one foot in one minute. Simply put, it is the engine performance rating that helps an engine maintain and maximize vehicle speeds.

Hydraulic Shift Pressure
Automatic transmissions operate by fluid pressures to engage and disengage the transmission's gears from the engine.

Independent Suspension
Each wheel of an independent suspension is sprung separately so that a bump affecting one does not affect the others.

Initial Contract Term
Range in monthly increments from 24 to 48 months.

Knock Sensor (Knock Control System)
By detecting high frequency vibrations that are early signs of pinging (pre-ignition) or knocking, a computerized engine control can retard the spark timing until the knock ceases. This allows an engine to take advantage of a high compression ratio (for more power) while reducing the risk of damage from hot weather, increased engine loads or lower grades of gasoline.

Leaf Spring
A leaf spring is a flat band of steel, curved into an arc, that usually mounts a solid axle to the vehicle. Most leaf springs have several bands of steel (a multi-leaf spring). Used in the rear suspension of Toyota trucks, leaf springs are simple, flexible and very rugged suspension components.

Lease
A contract between lessor and lessee for a specified time period and a specific payment. The title to the vehicle remains in the name of lessor as owner unless and until the lessee exercises his/her purchase option. Or, in layman's terms: A contract for a specified time period and a specific payment. The title to the car is in the name of the lessor, unless the lessee exercises the purchase option to take ownership of the car.

Lessee
You, the customer, who signs a lease with the lessor, and pays for the use of the vehicle according to the regulations of the lease.

Lessor
The Toyota dealership, and after assignment, the financial institution to which the lease is assigned. The party leasing the vehicle to the lessee, the actual owner of the vehicle and the lease (i.e., leasing company, dealership or financial institution).

Limited Slip Differential (LSD)
Improves traction by splitting torque evenly and preventing one wheel from slipping or spinning. Especially helpful during cornering or other slippery situations (snow, gravel, etc.).

Load-Sensing Proportioning and Bypass Valve (LSP & BV)
Mounted to the frame and the rear suspension arm/rear axle, the LSP & BV senses the weight distribution of the vehicle and automatically varies the amount of hydraulic pressure to the rear brakes based on the load in the vehicle. This helps to reduce rear-wheel lock-up with either light or heavy loads to maintain stopping control.

MacPherson Strut Suspension System
An independent suspension unit consisting of both a coil spring and a shock strut. (A shock absorber is inside the strut.) It is most commonly found in the front of passenger cars, but can also be used in the rear. This is a compact design that allows efficient space utilization while providing a smooth, comfortable ride with good handling.

Micron Air Filter
This is a particulate air-filtration system that reduces airborne particles larger than three microns. This helps prevent pollens, spores and road dust from entering the cabin, which helps those who suffer from allergies, asthma or other breathing problems.

Model Grade
A certain model (Corolla, Avalon, etc.) may come in several varieties or levels of "trim." These are often designated with letter combinations, like CE or XLE. The model grade is usually based on features that come standard with a vehicle, though some stylistic differences may also factor in.

Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP)³
The retail price of the vehicle as recommended by the manufacturer - often called the sticker or list price.

³2001 Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price includes the Delivery, Processing and Handling Fee. (Historically, vehicle manufacturers and distributors have charged a separate fee for processing, handling and delivering vehicles to dealerships. Toyota's charge for these services is called the "Delivery, Processing and Handling Fee" and is based on the value of the processing, handling and delivery services Toyota provides as well as Toyota's overall pricing structure. Toyota may make a profit on the Delivery, Processing and Handling Fee.) Excludes taxes, license, title and available or regionally required equipment. The Delivery, Processing and Handling Fee in AL, FL, GA, NC, SC, AR, LA, MS, OK and TX is $15 higher for Trucks, Sienna and SUVs, and $30 higher for all other Toyota vehicles. Actual dealer price may vary. Pricing, specifications, standard features and available equipment are based on information available when this page was produced and are subject to change without notice.

Multi-Valve Engine
By using more than the traditional one intake and one exhaust valve (two per cylinder), multiple valves (usually four per cylinder) increase the flow of the fuel/air mixture into the engine and exhaust gases out of the engine. It also allows a more central location of the spark plug for more uniform combustion.

NVH (Noise, Vibration And Harshness)
This term covers a wide range of factors that negatively affect the quiet and quality feel of a vehicle.

One-Touch Hi-4 Selector
In 4x4 Tacomas and 4Runners, this Limited available feature lets the driver shift into 4WD High with the touch of a button.

Options
These are features that do not come standard with a certain model, but are installed by the factory. Since the vehicles arrive at the dealer already equipped with options, you don't really choose an option; rather, you choose a vehicle with the options you like. Not all options are available separately or in all regions. You can contact your Toyota dealer to help you locate a vehicle that is right for you.

Overdrive Transmission
Overdrive provides a final drive ratio of less than 1:1. This allows the engine to operate at lower rpm at highway cruising speed and provides greater fuel economy, quieter operation, and less wear and tear on the engine. It also helps a vehicle maximize top-end speed.

Passenger Air Bag Cutoff Switch
Some Toyota models feature a passenger air bag cutoff switch&sup4; that can manually be set in the "on" or "off" position by turning the ignition key in the cutoff switch located in the center console.

4Do not turn off the passenger air bag system except when using a rearward-facing Child Restraint Seat (CRS) in the front seat. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

Passenger Window Lock-Out System
When used, this available system disables the passenger-side window from being operated by anyone except the driver.

Payload Rating
The maximum allowable weight, including occupants, equipment and cargo, a truck can transport - always determined by the manufacturer. Payload is calculated by subtracting curb weight from GVWR. So, if you increase the curb weight by adding components (such as a bigger engine or an automatic transmission), the payload rating will decrease.

Power-Assisted Variable-Assist Power Steering
The power-assist to the steering is adjusted according to either engine speed or road speed. Assist is greatest at low rpm or road speed, such as when parallel parking. Assist is lowest when the engine or road speed is greatest such as when cruising at highway speeds.

Privacy Glass
A deeply-tinted rear and side window glass that helps keep the sun's rays out of the passenger cabin and provides an added measure of occupant privacy.

Purchase
To purchase a vehicle is to outright buy it with a cash payment (possibly financed) and assume total ownership of it once all payments are made.

Purchase Option
An option in a lease which allows the lessee to purchase the vehicle at the end of the lease term for a specified price.

Rack-and-Pinion Steering
Consists of a round pinion gear attached to the steering shaft, and a flat bar with gear teeth cut into it, called the rack. The rack and pinion mesh at a point between the front wheels. As the steering wheel is turned, the shaft from the steering column turns the pinion gear, forcing the rack either right or left along a horizontal plane. The rack is linked to the wheels via tie rods, which push and pull the wheels to steer them. In general, rack-and-pinion steering is precise and responsive.

Radio Broadcast Data System (RDS)
The RDS on the optional JBL sound system allows the radio to receive digital data transmitted along with the standard FM radio signal. This information can include station call letters, program format, the name of the song and the artist playing, as well as other useful information. RDS also helps make it easier to find traffic and emergency information. RDS allows customers to receive the weather band, which provides National Weather Service Reports 24 hours a day. RDS allows the vehicle owner to personalize the radio for his preferences.

Rear Differential Lock
When the transfer case is engaged in "L4," turning on the rear differential lock switch in the instrument panel "locks" the rear differential so both wheels turn at the same rate of speed. This helps provide additional traction in inclement on- and off-road conditions.

Rear Leaf Springs
A long, thin, narrow strip of steel curved in a semi-elliptical arc and connected at each end to the vehicle's frame. Usually, more than one strip is used to form a multi-leaf spring. Rugged and simple in design, leaf springs are extremely flexible, are able to be layered according to weight application and are designed to support heavy loads. The rear leaf springs on Tundra and Tacoma 4x4 and PreRunner models are located above the axle for added ground clearance.

Rear-Wheel Drive
With the engine driving only the rear wheels, RWD offers advantages for high-performance driving, towing and carrying heavy loads.

Refundable Security Deposit
An amount collected by the lessor at the beginning of the lease to ensure the lessee's compliance with the terms of the lease. The security deposit is generally refundable at lease end, provided there are no excess mileage, excess wear and use charges, outstanding parking tickets or unpaid lease payments.

Residual Value
The lease-end value of the vehicle set at lease inception by the lessor. It's usually calculated as a percentage of the MSRP. This is a component of the payment calculation.

Retail Contract
A contract representing the time sale of a vehicle to a consumer.

Safety Glass (Laminated)
Used in windshields, this glass consists of two panes bonded together with a sheet of plastic sandwiched in between. This helps keep the windshield together during an impact, reducing injuries from sharp edges.

Safety Glass (Tempered)
This heat-treated glass used in side and rear windows breaks into small blunt pieces when broken.

Scheduled Termination
The end of the lease term, as called for in the lease. It is also referred to as the scheduled maturity date.

Seatbelt Pretensioners With Force Limiters
Seatbelt pretensioners cinch the seatbelts during certain types of frontal impacts. Pretensioning can help the belt to immediately begin absorbing the occupants' forward momentum and help them avoid injury. All Toyota vehicles with seatbelt pretensioners also feature force limiters. After the pretensioners deploy and a preset amount of force has been reached, force limiters slowly release tension on the belt to help absorb the energy of an impact.

Side-Impact Air Bag Supplemental Restraint System (SRS)¹
The SRS side air bags are installed in the driver and front passenger seats. For instructions and precautions, see the Owner's Manual. Do not lean against the front door when the vehicle is in use. The side air bag inflates with considerable speed and force. Death or injury could result. Do not modify, cover or replace the surface of the front seats. Such changes could disable the system or prevent the air bags from activating correctly, resulting in death or serious injury.

¹Driver and Front Passenger Air Bags
The Toyota driver and front passenger air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts and sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules. Do not put objects in front of an air bag. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

¹Driver, Front Passenger and Front Seat-Mounted Side-Impact Air Bags
The Toyota driver, front passenger and front seat-mounted side-impact air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. The side-impact air bags are designed to inflate in severe side-impact collisions. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts, sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules and do not lean against the door. Do not put objects in front of an air bag or around the seatback. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

¹Driver and Front Passenger Air Bags (with passenger air bag cutoff switch)
The Toyota driver and front passenger air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts, and sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules. Do not put objects in front of an air bag. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat without switching off the passenger-side air bag. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

¹Driver and Front Passenger Air Bags, Front Seat-Mounted Side-Impact Air Bags and Side Curtain Air Bags
The Toyota driver, front passenger, front seat-mounted side-impact and side curtain air bags are Supplemental Restraint Systems (SRS). The driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a severe frontal collision. The side-impact and curtain air bags are designed to inflate in severe side-impact collisions. In all other accidents, the air bags will not inflate. To decrease the risk of injury from a deploying air bag, always wear seatbelts, sit upright in the middle of the seat as far back as possible from the air bag modules and do not lean against the door. Do not put objects in front of an air bag or around the seatback. Do not use rearward-facing child seats in any front passenger seat. The force of a deploying air bag may cause serious injury or death. Please see your Owner's Manual for further instructions.

Side-Impact Door Beams
Required in all new passenger cars by the federal government, these are steel beams inside the door that deflect certain types of side impacts. They may help protect passengers from intrusion in certain types of side collisions.

Speed-Rated Tires
A designation of the sustained high-speed capability of the tire. Special compounds and construction enable these tires to withstand the increase in pressure that comes at higher speeds. The speed rating is the letter on the sidewall in the tire's size (e.g., P205/65HR15, H=130 mph-rated).

Stabilizer Bar
Sometimes called an anti-roll or sway bar, this is a bar or tube that links one side of the suspension to the other. The stabilizer bar acts as a torsion spring to resist twisting and reduce body roll during hard cornering.

Stainless Steel Exhaust
Because it is subject to extreme temperatures and water condensation, an exhaust system is particularly prone to corrosion. Stainless steel resists corrosion better than ordinary steel.

Stake Pockets
A series of squared-off, functionally designed "holes" or stake pockets along both sides of the top of the Tundra bed allow it to be easily transformed into a stake-bed truck. Each Tundra has six stake pockets (Access Cab models have four).

Sub-Frame
A frame separated from the vehicle's main frame, which supports specific vehicle components.

SUV Safety
Like other sport utility vehicles, this vehicle is designed for a variety of off-highway applications. Consequently, it has higher ground clearance, narrower tread and a higher center of gravity than ordinary passenger vehicles. This offers advantages such as better road visibility and the ability to drive the vehicle off-highway where ordinary passenger vehicles cannot be driven. But just as low-slung sports cars aren't designed to perform off-highway, a vehicle with a higher center of gravity is not designed to corner at the same speeds as ordinary passenger vehicles. Here are a few precautions you should observe to minimize the risk of serious personal injury or damage to your vehicle:

  • Avoid sharp turns or abrupt maneuvers, if at all possible. As with other vehicles of this type, failure to operate this vehicle correctly may result in loss of control, vehicle rollover and serious personal injury or death.
  • Avoid loading any items on the roof that will make the center of gravity even higher.
  • Always slow down in gusty crosswinds. Because of its larger size and higher center of gravity, your vehicle may be more sensitive to side winds than an ordinary passenger car. Slowing down will allow you to have much better control.
  • Do not drive horizontally across steep slopes. Driving straight up or straight down is preferred. Sport utility vehicles (or any similar off-highway vehicle) can tip over sideways more easily than forward or backward.
  • When driving off-highway or on rugged terrain, do not drive at excessive speeds, jump the vehicle, strike objects, etc. This may cause loss of control, vehicle rollover, serious personal injury or death, and perhaps cause expensive damage to your vehicle's suspension and chassis.

Term
The duration of the retail contract/lease agreement, usually expressed in months (e.g., 24 or 36 months).

Tie-Down Hooks
The cargo bed of Tacoma and Tundra pickups features four tie-down hooks located on the inside of the bed. They make securing loads easy and convenient.

Tongue Weight
The actual weight that is pressing down on the hitch attached to the vehicle. This weight should be subtracted to figure payload capacity.

Torque
A force in a twisting motion. In an engine, torque is the twisting motion at the crankshaft measured in foot-pounds (lb.-ft.). One foot-pound is the force of one pound acting at right angles at the end of an arm one foot long. Simply stated, torque is the engine power that gets a vehicle to speed - felt especially at off-line take-off and during acceleration.

Touch-Select 4WD Switch
In Tundras, this feature lets the driver select between 2WD and 4HI, and between 4HI and 4LO with a switch found on the instrument panel.

Towing Capacity
The maximum weight a truck can pull. Towing the maximum weight may require a particular transmission, trailer hitch or other equipment.

Toyota Computer Controlled System (TCCS)
A system used in all Toyota vehicles to monitor a variety of factors, including engine speed, engine temperature, air temperature and engine load. This information is sent to a sophisticated computer, which then coordinates adjustments to the fuel injection and ignition system. This technology can optimize engine operation for emissions, performance and efficiency under varying driving conditions.

Toyota Direct Ignition (TDI) System
This system eliminates all moving parts within the ignition system (including the distributor cap and rotor) by placing a compact ignition coil linked directly to each of the spark plugs, which minimizes misfiring and loss of engine power; in addition, this system eliminates the need for spark plug wires. The result is improved performance, greater durability/reliability and reduced maintenance.

Toyota Vehicle Intrusion Protection (VIP)
An available break-in alarm that flashes the headlamps and taillamps and sounds the horn when a secured vehicle is broken into. It also disables the starter if someone forcefully enters the car. Removing the ignition key from the ignition automatically arms the system.

Traction Control
The sophisticated Toyota system is an all-speed design which utilizes both brake and engine throttle control. Traction control helps to avoid slippage of the driving wheels, which tends to happen during starting and acceleration on slippery surfaces and to maintain an optimal driving force according to the road surface conditions. The system eliminates the need for a subtle accelerator pedal operation and helps ensure vehicle control when starting or accelerating on slippery roads.

Trailing Arm
A suspension component consisting of a longitudinal member that pivots from the body at its forward end and has a wheel hub attached at the other end (the trailing end). It is similar to a semi-trailing arm system except that its pivot axis is directly perpendicular to the vehicle's longitudinal axis.

Transfer Case
Four-wheel drive vehicles require a system of gears between the front and rear axles to transfer power from the transmission to those axles. Transfer cases typically have two gear ranges: high and low. Low range is used for extreme off-road conditions.

Turning Circle (Diameter)
Typically measured curb-to-curb, this is the tightest possible circle driven by the outside front tire between two imaginary curbs.

Twin-Cam Engine
See Double Overhead Cam (DOHC).

Two-Turn Door Locks
In a vehicle with this feature (including all Toyotas with power door locks), only the driver's door is unlocked when the key is turned in that door's lock. A second turn unlocks the other doors. This provides extra security in situations where the driver desires to open only one door, yet also allows the convenience of easily unlocking doors for all passengers.

Unibody
The floor pan of a vehicle and chassis are connected to form a single structure; there is no separate frame. By welding all body panels together to form the vehicle's frame, it is possible to build in strength and rigidity with less weight.

Valet Trunk-Locking System
A locking system with two different keys. One key can only open the doors and operate the ignition. The second key opens all locks, including those for the glove box and trunk or rear hatch, and operates the ignition. The purpose is to provide a valet with a key that operates the ignition, but does not unlock the storage compartments. On cars with folding seatbacks, this locking system also includes special seat latches to help keep the contents of the trunk or hatch secure.

Variable Valve Timing with intelligence (VVT-i)
This system selects the ideal intake and exhaust valve overlap under all engine operating conditions. VVT-i virtually eliminates the traditional compromises between low-end torque and high-rpm horsepower. It also helps enhance fuel economy and reduces emissions so effectively that it eliminates the need for the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) emissions device.

Variable Valve Timing and Lift with intelligence (VVTL-i)
Based on the VVT-i system, the VVTL-i system has adopted a cam changeover mechanism that varies the amount of lift of the intake and exhaust valves while the engine is operating at high speeds. In addition to achieving higher engine speeds and higher outputs, this system enables the valve timing to be optimally set, resulting in improved fuel economy.

When the engine is operating in the low- to mid-speed range, the low- and medium-speed cams of the camshafts operate to move the two valves via the rocker arms. Then, when the engine is operating in the high-speed range, the signals from the sensors cause the engine's control module (ECM) to change the hydraulic passage of the oil control valve (for the variable valve lift), thus changing to the operation of the high-speed cams. Now the lift of the intake and exhaust valves increases, allowing the introduction of a greater volume of air-fuel mixture, as well as the discharge of a greater volume of exhaust gases. As a result, the engine operates at higher speeds and higher outputs when the engine is under more strain.

Vehicle Skid Control (VSC)
The VSC system electronically monitors speed and direction, and compares the vehicle's direction of travel with the driver's steering, acceleration and braking inputs. VSC can help compensate for loss of traction which can cause skids. It utilizes some components shared with the Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) and an electronically controlled engine throttle as well as a dedicated computer and sensors providing information to the VSC system. These include a yaw rate sensor, a G-sensor and a steering angle sensor.

When VSC is active, a warning beep tone and instrument panel warning light indicate that the system is functioning. In many cases, VSC reacts well before the driver is aware of a loss of traction. As with other safety technologies, such as anti-lock brakes, it is important to drive safely, since Vehicle Skid Control cannot defy the laws of physics, nor can it provide more traction than exists in a given condition.

Ventilated Disc Brakes
Vents in the brake rotor allow cooling air to pass through the hot disc. This helps reduce heat build-up and lessens the chance of the brake fading, glazing or warping.

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